About Me

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Mumbai, India
I'm a landrace dog fancier, birder and amateur arachnologist. Founder of the INDog Project (www.indog.co.in) and the INDog Club. Before that, worked with urban free-ranging dogs of Mumbai from 1993-2007. Also a wildlife conservationist working in the tiger reserves of central India with Satpuda Foundation.

This blog is for aboriginal breed enthusiasts. It is part of the INDog Project www.indog.co.in. Only INDogs (Indian Pariah) and INDog-mix mongrels are featured here. The two are NOT the same, do please read the text on the right to understand the difference. Our aim: to create awareness about the primitive natural breed called the Indian Pariah Dog/INDog. I sometimes feature other landrace breeds too.

Sunday, July 4, 2010

The street dog issue: problems, solutions, FAQs

I know I've stated in the blog introduction (white panel, right) that this is not a welfare or animal rights blog, and we are not going to discuss the "stray dog issue" here because there are many other sites and blogs doing that. I do make some exceptions though. Welfare and rights issues inevitably pop up from time to time when free-roaming dogs are discussed. Recently the Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation stirred up a lot of controversy over their barbaric dog control methods and persecution of animal rights activist Lisa Warden (whose posts have appeared in this blog several times). I've written something about that controversy at the end of this post.

Here are FAQs about street dogs I wrote several years ago, for the animal welfare NGO I used to work for at the time (WSD). We printed them as a leaflet and also put them in the NGO website. I was informed that the organization is going to rework their site and I'm not sure they'll retain this, so I decided to copy it here. All questions and answers were based on feedback from the public, documented facts and my personal observation of thousands of dogs over 14 years of hands-on work. I've updated a few of the answers. You might find some of this useful if you have to answer similar questions at any time. You can currently also read the FAQs in this WSD web link.

Q1. Why are there so many stray dogs here anyway? Why aren’t there any in London and New York?
The urban environment in India has two features that encourage stray animal populations – exposed garbage and slums. Neither of these exists in developed countries.

Stray dogs are scavengers and garbage provides an ample source of food for them. In the absence of this food source, dogs would not be able to survive on the streets. Moreover in India and most other south-east Asian countries, stray dogs are also kept as free-roaming pets by slum-dwellers and street-dwellers such as ragpickers.

There are stray dogs in developed countries too – but they are abandoned pets, or feral dogs (meaning dogs who were once pets but now live like strays). They are unable to survive or breed on city streets since they can find nothing to eat. Most are captured, housed in animal shelters and rehomed.

Q2. Why did the municipal corporation stop killing dogs?
Mass killing of dogs as a population control measure was started by the British in the 19th Century. It was continued on a large scale (up to 50,000 dogs killed every year) after Independence by the municipal authorities all over India, with the aims of eradicating human rabies deaths and the stray dog population. By 1993, it was admitted to be a complete failure, since human rabies deaths had actually increased, and the dog population was also perceptibly growing.

Studies by the World Health Organisation (WHO) and the Animal Welfare Board of India (Ministry of Environment & Forests) show that dog population control measures which work in developed countries are unsuccessful in third world developing countries, since urban conditions are very different. The urban environment here encourages breeding of stray dogs, so no matter how many dogs were killed, they were quickly replaced by more.

That’s why in January 1994, the killing programme was replaced by mass sterilisation of stray dogs. The sterilisation programme is carried out by non-government organisations in collaboration with the municipal corporation.

Q3. If stray dog population control is the issue, wouldn’t it make more sense to kill the dogs or take them away?
Removal or killing of stray dogs seems to be the most obvious method of controlling the population, but it has actually proved to be completely useless. This is because even when large numbers of dogs are killed, the conditions that sustain dog populations remain unchanged. Dogs are territorial and each one lives in its own specific area. When they are removed, the following things happen:

  • The food source – garbage – is still available in abundance, so dogs from neighbouring areas enter the vacant territories.

  • Pups born and growing up in the surrounding areas also move in to occupy these vacant niches.

  • The few dogs who escape capture and remain behind attack these newcomers, leading to frequent and prolonged dog-fights.

  • Since they are not sterilised, all the dogs who escape capture continue to mate, leading to more fighting.

  • In the course of fights, dogs often accidentally redirect their aggression towards people passing by, so many humans get bitten.

  • Females with pups become aggressive and often attack pedestrians who come too close to their litter.

  • They breed at a very high rate. It has been estimated that two dogs can multiply to over 300 in three years.

Since dogs who are removed are quickly replaced, the population does not decrease at all. The main factors leading to dog aggression – migration and mating – continue to exist, so the nuisance factor remains.

Since removal of dogs actually increases dog-related problems, the effective solution is to sterilise the dogs, vaccinate them against rabies and put them back in their own areas.

Q4. But what’s the point of putting the dogs back after sterilisation? Doesn’t the problem just continue?
No, when dogs are sterilised and put back in their own area, the population and the problems caused by dogs both reduce. Here’s how:

  • Each dog guards its own territory and does not allow new dogs to enter.

  • Since they are all neutered, they no longer mate or multiply.

  • The main factors leading to dog aggression – migration and mating - are eliminated. So dog-fights reduce dramatically.

  • With the decrease in fighting, bites to humans also decrease.

  • Since females no longer have pups to protect, this source of dog aggression is also eliminated.

  • Over a period of time, as the sterilised dogs die natural deaths, the population is greatly reduced.

Please remember, there is NO overnight solution to the stray dog issue. It is simply not possible to wish all the dogs away. With sterilisation, the population becomes stable, non-breeding and non-rabid and decreases over time. It also becomes largely non-aggressive. On the other hand, when dogs are removed or killed, new dogs keep entering an area and the population is continuously changing, unstable, aggressive, multiplies at a high rate and carries rabies. Which method makes more sense?

Q5. Why don’t you dog-lovers just keep all these stray dogs in your own homes?
Dog-lovers have not created the stray dog population. They merely try to minimise it through sterilisation, and to keep it rabies-free through vaccination. Moreover, even if a lot of stray dogs got adopted, the basic problems of vacant territories and dog replacement would remain.

(By the same logic, people who love children could be asked to keep the entire population of street children in their own homes!)

Incidentally, our organisation does promote the adoption of pariahs and mongrels - so if someone you know is planning to buy a pure-breed dog, try and persuade him to adopt a stray instead. Although it won’t provide a large-scale solution, you will have the satisfaction of knowing you got one dog off the street!

Q6. Can’t some of the dogs be released in another place?
Since they would be entering the territory of other dogs, there would be a lot of fighting in the area in which they are released, and in the process more humans would get bitten. Their original territories would also be left vacant, so new dogs would enter… and the stray dog problem would go on forever.

Q7. What about rabies? Don’t they all spread rabies?
Only rabid dogs spread rabies. Healthy ones don’t.

The World Health Organisation recommends mass vaccination of dogs as the only effective way to eradicate human rabies. Mass vaccination has led to a significant decrease in human rabies deaths in Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, Sri Lanka, Jaipur and Mumbai itself. Recently Fethiye in southwestern Turkey implemented this programme and dog-related problems have reduced.

The sterilisation programme includes anti-rabies vaccination. Our organisation also annually vaccinates a large number of stray dogs on site. Between 1993 and 2005, we have vaccinated over 37,000 stray dogs.

Q8. But didn’t dog-killing help in controlling rabies?
Dog-killing was ineffective as a rabies eradication measure, since the catchers only captured healthy dogs and the rabid ones were left to spread the disease. Official sources also claim that half of human rabies deaths are caused by unvaccinated pets, so once again killing stray dogs is of no use.

The killing method has failed to control rabies in developing countries worldwide – including Pakistan, Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Cambodia, North Korea, Bhutan, Afghanistan, Jordan, Syria, Yemen, Bangladesh, Nepal, Ukraine and Uzbekistan.

Q9. I sometimes see dogs with skin problems and hairless patches – aren’t they all rabid?
Skin problems and fur fall are not symptoms of rabies. Rabies affects the central nervous system, not the skin. Probably the confusion occurred because there is a skin disease called scabies. Strangely, this question is asked quite often in India.

Q10. How exactly do you sterilise the dogs? Are both males and females sterilised?
Both males and females need to be sterilised, because while the females actually give birth to more dogs, the males are more aggressive and have much higher nuisance value. Complaints from the public are almost always about males.

Both males and females are surgically sterilised at our centre, under general anaesthesia, by qualified veterinary surgeons. The process is also called neutering. In the case of females the ovaries and uterus are removed, and in the case of males the testicles are removed. Therefore both mating and breeding cease. The dogs are kept for post-operative care for a period of 8 days and then released in their original location.

Q11. Ok, so the birth rate of dogs comes down over time…but what about dog-bites?
As explained earlier, most dog aggression occurs during mating time, as dogs cross territories to mate and fight with other dogs whose areas they enter. Humans passing by get accidentally bitten in the course of these dog-fights. This problem ends when all the dogs from a neighbourhood are sterilised.

As testosterone levels come down after sterilisation, male dogs also become less aggressive. Stray dog females are usually aggressive only when they have puppies to protect, so with sterilisation this problem ends as well.

Q12. Dogs bark and howl the whole night – how can you solve that problem?
Barking and howling occur during dog-fights, which take place at their mating time, so with sterilisation the problem disappears. Dogs bark when new dogs enter their territory, and as these migrations cease with sterilisation, the barking largely ends too. They also howl when they live and move in packs. When the dog population dwindles in size, pack behaviour also declines.

Q13. How would I know if a dog has been sterilised?
Nowadays all NGOs make a triangular notch in one of the ear flaps, making it very easy to recognize a sterilized dog. The notch is a sharply cut one, quite different from a natural tear in the ear.

Q14. The dog problem may have reduced in South Mumbai – but there are still so many dogs in the suburbs. What’s being done about that?
The human population and the number of high-rise buildings are growing very fast in the suburbs, leading to suddenly increased amounts of garbage, leading to a large population of stray dogs.

Organizations in South Mumbai have been working consistently for many years in South Mumbai, which is why the dog population has reduced there. Animal welfare organisations working in the suburbs started operations much later, and will need some time to show results. It's very important to cover slums because these are the main breeding areas for dogs. Also market areas and the rocky seaface all along the western side of the city.

Q15. How did stray dogs originate anyway?
India has long been home to the Pariah Dog, one of the world’s oldest canine breeds. In slightly varied forms, the Pariah Dog has existed for over 14,000 years all over Asia and North Africa. Most rural families own at least one. As villages and rural areas turned into cities, these dogs became stray dogs. As explained earlier, they survive by eating garbage and are also kept as pets by slum-dwellers.

The stray dog population is regularly increased by callous owners who abandon their pets on the street. Many irresponsible pure-breed owners also allow their pets to mate with strays, producing a large population of mix-breeds or mongrels.

Q16. What is the difference between stray dogs and mongrels?
Stray is merely a legal term indicating an animal who is ownerless and homeless. It does not refer to the breed of the dog. When pure-breedsare lost or abandoned on the street by their owners, they also become strays.

A mongrel is a dog of mixed or indeterminate breed. Both the terms stray and mongrel are commonly – and erroneously – used to denote a Pariah Dog. Pariahs are a distinct breed of dog, coming under the category of primitive or aboriginal breeds. Since they are not commercially recognised, this fact is not widely known.

In India, most strays are Pariah Dogs or mongrels. Once a Pariah or mongrel gets adopted as a house-pet, it ceases to be a stray.

Q17. My building society wants to remove all the dogs from the premises and release them in another area – is that legal?
No, it is absolutely illegal and punishable. Under the Bombay Municipal Corporation Act only the staff of the BMC or people authorised by them can capture stray dogs. The guidelines for dog population control approved by the Mumbai High Court in 1998 also prohibit the permanent removal of stray dogs from their original location.

Q18. Some people go around feeding stray dogs. Doesn’t that increase the stray dog problem?
No. Stray dog populations are created and sustained by garbage, not by handouts from kind-hearted ladies! In fact, people who feed dogs generally get them vaccinated and neutered as well, so the population would actually decrease where dogs are being fed. However, feeding should be done in a responsible manner so that it does not cause any disturbance to the public.

Q19. Isn’t it sad that stray dogs have to eat garbage?
Archaeological studies indicate that wolves started living near human settlements so that they could eat the garbage thrown outside. Dogs evolved from these wolves, and have always been scavengers. Unlike humans, they do not view garbage with disgust. In fact, even a well-fed pedigreed dog will often make trips to the dustbin when his owners aren’t looking. Of course, eating garbage has its risks, since once in a while a dog may eat something poisonous – but many strays lead long and healthy lives with no other source of food.

Q20. What should I do if I want the dogs in my area sterilised?
You should contact NGOs in your city. A few NGO sites are in the links in this blog (bottom right of page).

Q21. If I want stray dogs vaccinated against rabies what should I do?
Many NGOs vaccinate dogs on site, so contact them.

Q22. If I see a sick or injured dog, what should I do?
This would vary from one city to another, but some nowadays have first-aid groups or helplines for animals.

Q23. Do I have to pay anything if I want any of those services?
Policies vary from one NGO to another. Many Mumbai organizations provide first-aid and other services free of charge.

The street dog issue is also explained with pictures here.

Do you recognize the red canine model by the way? It's Lalee! I was accused of nepotism at the time for putting Lalee's pictures throughout the site, but what could I do? She was just the best looking INDoggy I could find!


The Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation's persecution of dogs and Lisa Warden:

This is an appropriate place to mention the Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation's methods of dog control, which are both illegal and unsound and are not based on scientific understanding of canine behaviour or rabies eradication.

Many readers of this blog and Pariah Club members already know about this through Facebook and my emails. For those who don't know about it, here is the link to the petition demanding justice for the dogs and Lisa:


As a result of the crisis, the corporation has now agreed to follow the laws and dog control rules and have signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the Animal Welfare Board of India (Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India). They have not dropped their unjustified charges against Lisa though. You can follow this case through the Facebook group

In Support of Lisa Warden


Sonal Panse said...

Three questions -
Is the anti-rabies vaccination done annually as it needs to be done?

What about regular deworming? To avoid infecting humans with tapeworms, roundworms, etc.

Scabies is also transferable to humans. Are the dogs with skin problems treated as well?

Rajashree Khalap said...

Hi Sonal, thanks for reading. I stopped working with the ABC programme a few years ago so can't give up-to-date info (you'd have to ask the NGOs directly for that). Up to 3 years ago I know many of the dogs in my part of Mumbai were vaccinated annually because people looking after them would call the NGO people for revaccination. They are probably still doing that but since I'm no longer personally involved I can't vouch for that. I get mails about on-site vaccination drives from several NGOs but don't know how many dogs get covered. I have no info about other cities but I believe ongoing vaccination drives are a must. Virbac has an oral vaccine that could be used effectively for this kind of animal population, but the cost per dose is high.

There are first-aid groups run by some NGOs in Mumbai that deworm dogs and pups (more vulnerable to parasites) and also treat skin problems and other diseases. Again, no info about other cities. Some NGOs also hold workshops to teach dog lovers basic first aid, so they can attend to dogs that they are feeding or looking after in their locality. From a realistic viewpoint I would say humans who actually sit on the road or walk barefoot are at risk of getting worm infestations, not really the majority of pedestrians. For instance, ragpickers' families and pavement dwellers who keep street dogs as pets and sleep next to them. Those dogs should be prioritized for deworming. However I have never got worms though I handled thousands of dogs over 14 years and I don't remember any colleagues or staff getting them either.

You'll see some NGO website links in the links section of this blog btw.

doggylove said...

hi! just for info: scabies is in 2 forms, one form is contagious, other is not. from my personal experience, tommy always has fungal infections, they should have passed on to my other pet dogs, niether did my other dogs ever got it, nor me or my family.

Rajashree Khalap said...

Thanks Sonal and Manik. I'll add these questions to the FAQs over this weekend.

ash said...

you know, from general behavior of people towards animals, animal life is considered to be secondary and less important than humans lives. Therein lies the problem. With most of land taken up by human societies, people shoo dogs from whatever little space they get for resting. Its like ,people consider that all space is there's and animals are intruders. Wish people understood that species are supposed to cohabit and coexist as just like us, they have chosen this particular area for living.
Plus it seems that some people just want to get rid of dogs if it is rabid or if it seems that there are chances of spreading infection. Well even if a human being gets the worst form of contagious disease, he/she is not put to death but treated. Why this lesser attitude towards animals?

Coming to the stray dog nuisance, i have observed that feeding strays does actually make them more bold and have increased tendency to bark and maybe attack someone. Dogs who are fed, know that there is a guardian angel(person feeding them)to protect it plus they themselves attack more when the feeder is feeding,i guess as a measure to protect there feeder as well as due to lack of fear since the feeder is around. Well, it is the responsibility of the person who feeds them to keep them under control. If you see your dogs barking or attacking someone, raise your hand as well as give 2-3 whacks if necessary.(side-note: don't whack your kids if they misbehave, there are more ways to make a kid understand :) )

Rajashree Khalap said...

You're right about the attitude of people towards animals Ash. Regarding feeding, it's a complex thing actually. At the exact time of feeding dogs are certainly over-excited and competitive towards other dogs and there could be aggression towards people passing by at that time. That's why it's important to feed street dogs only at times when the area is least crowded - not near a school gate when school gets over for instance, or not near a bus stop at rush hour. BUT, in the long term, I've observed dogs who are fed are much more respectful of humans per se and highly unlikely to attack them. The dogs that are really aggressive (my experience only) are the ones who live only by foraging, in dumping grounds. They have no agreeable experience of humans and in fact since they see a lot of ragpickers who are also foraging, they probably regard humans as competition. There was a lethal dog attack on a ragpicker's child in a Mumbai dumping ground in 2005. I've seen such dogs when driving through a dumping ground once. We had to keep the windows up because they were actually ferocious and unlike any pariah dogs I've ever seen. Worst of all are the dogs near slaughterhouses. Since raw carcass parts are highly nutritious for them, they guard their pickings much more aggressively. The biologists Raymond and Lorna Coppinger mention the same thing and so does the applied behaviour scientist Dr Patricia McConnell. Again, serious or lethal attacks on humans are usually only in these areas e.g. Meerut, Bangalore.

ash said...

Yes dogs do get over excited when food is brought to them. But, not not dogs attack. Some just bark and some attack. In fact, the barking ones usually incite the biting ones to attack(usually bitches start bark and males go for action.) Well as you said, dogs who don't have contact with humans can attack, but usually they stay a safe distance from humans. Yes they can injure more if they attack.
Strange thing about rag pickers. Dogs bark when rag pickers go on road but when they reach the garbage holders, we can see dogs and rag pickers doing there work, without the dogs barking at them.
Dogs bark when a person seems out of place, like a person with torn clothes, policemen(because of there uniform), women who are quite short or kids(i guess, they feel that they can attack them easily because of there height).
Also protection of area is a factor. There is a dog in my area who is very loyal and very protective about our area. He is the one who attacks. well whacks have worked for me to deal with him(and the sad part of it, is you feel sad after beating, cause after all it is a natural instinct to protect his area!)