It's very encouraging to see all the adoption efforts of NGOs and animal lovers in big cities like Mumbai, Chennai, Bangalore and Delhi. But I'd like to put in a word here for the dogs who get no attention at all: highway and village dogs.
The majority of free-roaming dogs in India definitely belong to this category.
While city dogs nowadays have at least some access to welfare services - medical care, good food, vaccination, neutering and adoption - highway dogs have NONE.
Dog populations in large cities will perhaps reduce over the years through neutering programmes. But there are no welfare programmes for highway and rural dogs, and there may never be, since animal welfare activities in India tend to be urban and small-scale and will probably not expand much in the near future.
You will see dogs all around India if you make road trips, at roadside restaurants and shacks, toll booths, petrol stations, grimy garages, garbage dumps, just about anywhere they can get food. You will also see lots of roadkill, mostly dogs. Put the two together and make a guess at the average life expectancy of a highway pup.
With highways being widened and improved all the time, more people using them, more restaurants and shops mushrooming along the roadside, and more garbage, the plight of these dogs will only get worse.
If you are looking to adopt, do consider the option of travelling two or three hours out of your city to look for your future pet. It's "puppy season" right now since INDogs have a seasonal breeding cycle. You are sure to see many nursing females; just hop out of the car and follow any one that seems friendly!